Genus Homo

Homo antecessor (extinct): Early inhabitant of Europe, lived 780,000-857,000 years ago while Homo erectus lived in East Asia. Possible ancestor to Heidelberg Man, found at Atapuerca, Spain.

Homo cepranensis (extinct): 900,000, found in Italy; a proposed species known from only one cranial bone.

Homo erectus (extinct): The "workman man" lived 1.85 to 0.1 mya lived in Africa, Asia, Indonesia; made advanced stone tools, hand-axes and cleavers, hunted, used fire, had a brain size of 750-1250 cc.

Homo ergaster (extinct): Lived 1.8-0.6 mya in Africa and on to parts of Asia, brain 750-1250 cc.

Homo floresiensis (extinct): Man of Flores, Indonesia, an island dwarf form of H. erectus arrived on the island about 100,000 years ago, and survived intil at least 13,000 years ago, possibly until modern times.

Homo georgicus (extinct): Lived 1.8 mya, intermediate between habilis and erectus. First inhabitant of Europe, brain 600-800 cc, also a possible ancestor to H. erectus.

Homo habilis (extinct): Lived 2-1.5 mya, name means "handy man or skillful person," made stone tools for scavenging meat off of carrion, about 1 m (3 feet) tall with long arms, a possible ancestor to H. ergaster.

Homo heidelbergensis (extinct): Lived 600,000-100,000 years ago in Africa, Asia, and Europe, brain 1100-1400 cc, a possible ancestor to Neanderthal and modern humans

Homo neanderthalensis (extinct): Lived 230,000-29,000 years ago; adapted to cold climate of Europe and parts of western Asia, brain 1200-1750 cc.

Homo rhodesiensis (extinct): Rhodesia Man lived in southern Africa 2.5-1.75 mya.

Homo rudolfensis (extinct): Lived 2.4-1.6 mya in East Africa.

Homo sapiens: Cro-Magnon lived 195,000 years ago, leaving Africa into Asia 100,000 years ago, reaching Australlia 70,000 years ago, Europe 40,000 years ago, the Americas 30,000 years ago, and Oceania 15,000 years ago.

Homo sapiens idaltu (extinct): Human subspecies lived 160,000 years ago in Africa.

Homo sapiens sapiens: The modern form of humans was apparent 60,000 years ago. Cultural evolution overtook biological evolution leading to current global dominance by one species.


Australopithecus garhi (2.5 mya)


Homo rhodesiensis (2.5-1.75 mya)

Homo habilis (2.4-1.5 mya)

Homo georgicus (1.8-? mya)

Homo rudolfensis (2.4-1.6 mya)

Homo ergaster (1.8-1.25 mya)

Homo erectus (1.8-0.1 mya)

Homo cepranensis (0.9-? mya)

Homo floresiensis (0.1-0.013 mya)

Homo antecessor (0.8-? mya)

Homo heidelbergensis (0.7-0.3 mya)

Homo neanderthalensis (0.25-0.03 mya)

Homo sapiens (0.2-0 mya)

Homo sapiens idaltu (0.16-? mya)

Homo sapiens sapiens (0.06-0 mya)