Systema Naturae

(Linnaeus, 1758)


Empire Naturae (nature) is divided to 3 kingdoms Animale (animals), Vegetabile (plants), and Lapideum (minerals).


Animale (animals),

Mammalia (mammals)

Aves (birds)

Amphibia (composite group of vertebrates)

Pisces (fishes)

Insecta (arthropods)








Vermes (other animals)


Vegetabile (plants)

(I) Public Marriages (Flowers visible to everyone)

Monoclinous (Husband and wife have the same bed) [Hermaphrodite flowers: stamens and pistils in the same flower]

Without Affinity (Husbands not related to each other) [stamens not united by any of their parts]

      1. Without Subordination (All the males of equal rank) [stamens not in set proportion]
        1. Monandria - One husband in marriage (Willow)
        2. Diandria - Two husbands in the same marriage
        3. Triandria - Three husbands in the same marriage
        4. Tetrandria - Four husbands in the same marriage
        5. Pentandria - Five husbands in the same marriage
        6. Hexandria - Six husbands in the same marriage
        7. Heptandria - Seven husbands in the same marriage
        8. Octandria - Eight husbands in the same marriage
        9. Enneandria - Nine husbands in the same marriage
        10. Decandria - Ten husbands in the same marriage
        11. Dodecandria - Twelve to nineteen husbands in the same marriage
        12. Icosandria - Generally twenty husbands, often more
        13. Polyandria - Twenty males or more in the same marriage
      2. With Subordination (Some males above the others) [Two stamens always shorter]
        1. Didynamia - Four husbands, two taller than the other two
        2. Tetradynamia - More than four husbands, two shorter than the others

With Affinity (Husbands related to each other) [stamens united with each other or with the pistil]

        1. Monadelphia - Husbands, like brothers, arise from one base
        2. Diadelphia - Husbands arise from two bases, as if from two mothers
        3. Polyadelphia - Husbands arise from more than two mothers
        4. Syngenesia - Husbands joined together at the top
        5. Gynandria - Husbands and wives growing together

Diclinous (Husband and wife have separate beds) [separate male and female flowers of the same species]

    1. Monoecia - Husbands live with their wives in the same house, but have different beds
    2. Dioecia - Husbands and wives have different houses
    3. Polygamia - Husbands live with wives and concubines

(II) Clandestine Marriages (Flowers scarcely visible to the naked eye)

  1. Cryptogamia - Nuptials are celebrated privately (ferns, mosses, lichens, fungi, algae)



Lapideum (minerals).